THE LAWS OF TABLE TENNIS
The upper surface of the table, known as the playing surface, shall be rectangular,
2.74m long and 1.525m wide, and shall lie in a horizontal plane 76cm above the floor.
The playing surface shall not include the vertical sides of the tabletop.
The playing surface may be of any material and shall yield a uniform bounce of about
23cm when a standard ball is dropped on to it from a height of 30cm.
The playing surface shall be uniformly dark coloured and matt, but with a white
side line, 2cm wide, along each 2.74m edge and a white end line, 2cm wide, along
each 1.525m edge.
The playing surface shall be divided into 2 equal courts by a vertical net running parallel
with the end lines, and shall be continuous over the whole area of each court.
For doubles, each court shall be divided into 2 equal half-courts by a white centre line,
3mm wide, running parallel with the side lines; the centre line shall be regarded as part
of each right half-court.
THE NET ASSEMBLY
The net assembly shall consist of the net, its suspension and the supporting posts,
including the clamps attaching them to the table.
The net shall be suspended by a cord attached at each end to an upright post 15.25cm
high, the outside limits of the post being 15.25cm outside the side line.
The top of the net, along its whole length, shall be 15.25cm above the playing surface.
The bottom of the net, along its whole length, shall be as close as possible to the
playing surface and the ends of the net shall be attached to the supporting posts from
top to bottom.
The ball shall be spherical, with a diameter of 40mm.
The ball shall weigh 2.7g.
The ball shall be made of celluloid or similar plastics material and shall be white or
orange, and matt.
The racket may be of any size, shape or weight but the blade shall be flat and rigid.
At least 85% of the blade by thickness shall be of natural wood; an adhesive layer
within the blade may be reinforced with fibrous material such as carbon fibre, glass
fibre or compressed paper, but shall not be thicker than 7.5% of the total thickness or
0.35mm, whichever is the smaller.
A side of the blade used for striking the ball shall be covered with either ordinary
pimpled rubber, with pimples outwards having a total thickness including adhesive of
not more than 2.0mm, or sandwich rubber, with pimples inwards or outwards, having
a total thickness including adhesive of not more than 4.0mm.
Ordinary pimpled rubber is a single layer of non-cellular rubber, natural or synthetic,
with pimples evenly distributed over its surface at a density of not less than 10 per cm²
and not more than 30 per cm².
Sandwich rubber is a single layer of cellular rubber covered with a single outer layer
of ordinary pimpled rubber, the thickness of the pimpled rubber not being more
The covering material shall extend up to but not beyond the limits of the blade,
except that the part nearest the handle and gripped by the fingers may be left
uncovered or covered with any material.
The blade, any layer within the blade and any layer of covering material or adhesive
on a side used for striking the ball shall be continuous and of even thickness.
The surface of the covering material on a side of the blade, or of a side of the blade if
it is left uncovered, shall be matt, bright red on one side and black on the other.
The racket covering shall be used without any physical, chemical or other treatment.
Slight deviations from continuity of surface or uniformity of colour due to accidental
damage or wear may be allowed provided that they do not significantly change the
characteristics of the surface.
Before the start of a match and whenever he or she changes his or her racket during a
match a player shall show his or her opponent and the umpire the racket he or she is
about to use and shall allow them to examine it.
A rally is the period during which the ball is in play.
The ball is in play from the last moment at which it is stationary on the palm of the
free hand before being intentionally projected in service until the rally is decided as a let
or a point.
A let is a rally of which the result is not scored.
A point is a rally of which the result is scored.
The racket hand is the hand carrying the racket.
The free hand is the hand not carrying the racket; the free arm is the arm of the free hand.
A player strikes the ball if he or she touches it in play with his or her racket, held in the
hand, or with his or her racket hand below the wrist.
A player obstructs the ball if he or she, or anything he or she wears or carries, touches
it in play when it is above or travelling towards the playing surface, not having touched
his or her court since last being struck by his or her opponent.
The server is the player due to strike the ball first in a rally.
The receiver is the player due to strike the ball second in a rally.
The umpire is the person appointed to control a match.
The assistant umpire is the person appointed to assist the umpire with certain decisions.
Anything that a player wears or carries includes anything that he or she was wearing or
carrying, other than the ball, at the start of the rally.
The end line shall be regarded as extending indefinitely in both directions.
Service shall start with the ball resting freely on the open palm of the server's stationary
The server shall then project the ball near vertically upwards, without imparting spin,
so that it rises at least 16cm after leaving the palm of the free hand and then falls without
touching anything before being struck.
As the ball is falling the server shall strike it so that it touches first his or her court and
then touches directly the receiver's court; in doubles, the ball shall touch successively
the right half court of server and receiver.
From the start of service until it is struck, the ball shall be above the level of the playing
surface and behind the server's end line, and it shall not be hidden from the receiver
by the server or his or her doubles partner or by anything they wear or carry.
As soon as the ball has been projected, the server’s free arm and hand shall be removed
from the space between the ball and the net. The space between the ball and the net
is defined by the ball, the net and its indefinite upward extension.
It is the responsibility of the player to serve so that the umpire or the assistant umpire
can be satisfied that he or she complies with the requirements of the Laws, and either
may decide that a service is incorrect.
If either the umpire or the assistant umpire is not sure about the legality of a service he
or she may, on the first occasion in a match, interrupt play and warn the server; but
any subsequent service by that player or his or her doubles partner which is not clearly
legal shall be considered incorrect.
Exceptionally, the umpire may relax the requirements for a correct service where he or
she is satisfied that compliance is prevented by physical disability.
The ball, having been served or returned, shall be struck so that it touches them
opponent's court, either directly or after touching the net assembly.
THE ORDER OF PLAY
In singles, the server shall first make a service, the receiver shall then make a return
and thereafter server and receiver alternately shall each make a return.
In doubles, except as provided in 2.8.3, the server shall first make a service, the receiver
shall then make a return, the partner of the server shall then make a return, the partner
of the receiver shall then make a return and thereafter each player in turn in that
sequence shall make a return.
In doubles, when at least one player of a pair is in a wheelchair due to a physical
disability, the server shall first make a service, the receiver shall then make a return
but thereafter either player of the disabled pair may make returns. However, no part
of a player’s wheelchair nor a foot of a standing player of this pair shall protrude
beyond the imaginary extension of the centre line of the table. If it does, the umpire
shall award the point to the opposing pair.
The rally shall be a let:
If in service the ball touches the net assembly, provided the service is otherwise correct
or the ball is obstructed by the receiver or his or her partner;
If the service is delivered when the receiving player or pair is not ready, provided that
neither the receiver nor his or her partner attempts to strike the ball;
If failure to make a service or a return or otherwise to comply with the Laws is due to
a disturbance outside the control of the player;
If play is interrupted by the umpire or assistant umpire;
If the receiver is in wheelchair owing to a physical disability and in service the ball,
provided that the service is otherwise correct,
After touching the receiver’s court returns in the direction of the net;
Comes to rest on the receiver's court;
In singles leaves the receiver’s court after touching it by either of its sidelines.
Play may be interrupted
To correct an error in the order of serving, receiving or ends;
To introduce the expedite system;
To warn or penalise a player or adviser;
Because the conditions of play are disturbed in a way which could affect the outcome
of the rally.
Unless the rally is a let, a player shall score a point
If an opponent fails to make a correct service;
If an opponent fails to make a correct return;
If, after he or she has made a service or a return, the ball touches anything other than
the net assembly before being struck by an opponent;
If the ball passes over his or her court or beyond his or her end line without touching
his or her court, after being struck by an opponent;
If the ball, after being struck by an opponent, passes through the net or between the
net and the net post or between the net and playing surface;
If an opponent obstructs the ball;
If an opponent deliberately strikes the ball twice in succession;
If an opponent strikes the ball with a side of the racket blade whose surface does
not comply with the requirements of 2.4.3, 2.4.4 and 2.4.5;
If an opponent, or anything an opponent wears or carries, moves the playing surface;
If an opponent, or anything an opponent wears or carries, touches the net assembly;
If an opponent's free hand touches the playing surface;
If a doubles opponent strikes the ball out of the sequence established by the first server
and first receiver;
As provided under the expedite system (2.15.4).
If both players or pairs are in a wheelchair due to a physical disability and
His or her opponent does not maintain a minimum contact with the seat or cushion(s),
with the back of the thigh, when the ball is struck;
His or her opponent touches the table with either hand before striking the ball;
His or her opponent’s footrest or foot touches the floor during play.
As provided under the order of play (2.8.3).
A game shall be won by the player or pair first scoring 11 points unless both players or
pairs score 10 points, when the game shall be won by the first player or pair subsequently
gaining a lead of 2 points.
A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games.
THE ORDER OF SERVING, RECEIVING AND ENDS
The right to choose the initial order of serving, receiving and ends shall be decided by
lot and the winner may choose to serve or to receive first or to start at a particular end.
When one player or pair has chosen to serve or to receive first or to start at a particular
end, the other player or pair shall have the other choice.
After each 2 points have been scored the receiving player or pair shall become the
serving player or pair and so on until the end of the game, unless both players or pairs
score 10 points or the expedite system is in operation, when the sequences of serving
and receiving shall be the same but each player shall serve for only 1 point in turn.
In each game of a doubles match, the pair having the right to serve first shall choose
which of them will do so and in the first game of a match the receiving pair shall decide
which of them will receive first; in subsequent games of the match, the first server having
been chosen, the first receiver shall be the player who served to him or her in the
In doubles, at each change of service the previous receiver shall become the server and
the partner of the previous server shall become the receiver.
The player or pair serving first in a game shall receive first in the next game of the match
and in the last possible game of a doubles match the pair due to receive next shall
change their order of receiving when first one pair scores 5 points.
The player or pair starting at one end in a game shall start at the other end in the next
game of the match and in the last possible game of a match the players or pairs shall
change ends when first one player or pair scores 5 points.
OUT OF ORDER OF SERVING, RECEIVING OR ENDS
If a player serves or receives out of turn, play shall be interrupted by the umpire as
soon as the error is discovered and shall resume with those players serving and receiving
who should be server and receiver respectively at the score that has been reached,
according to the sequence established at the beginning of the match and, in doubles,
to the order of serving chosen by the pair having the right to serve first in the game
during which the error is discovered.
If the players have not changed ends when they should have done so, play shall be
interrupted by the umpire as soon as the error is discovered and shall resume with
the players at the ends at which they should be at the score that has been reached,
according to the sequence established at the beginning of the match.
In any circumstances, all points scored before the discovery of an error shall be reckoned.
THE EXPEDITE SYSTEM
Except as provided in 2.15.2, the expedite system shall come into operation after 10
minutes’ play in a game or at any time when requested by both players or pairs.
The expedite system shall not be introduced in a game if at least 18 points have been
If the ball is in play when the time limit is reached and the expedite system is due to
come into operation, play shall be interrupted by the umpire and shall resume with
service by the player who served in the rally that was interrupted; if the ball is not in
play when the expedite system comes into operation, play shall resume with service by
the player who received in the immediately preceding rally.
Thereafter, each player shall serve for 1 point in turn until the end of the game, and if the
receiving player or pair makes 13 correct returns in a rally the receiver shall score a point.
Introduction of the expedite system shall not alter the order of serving and receiving
in the match, as defined in 2.13.6.
Once introduced, the expedite system shall remain in operation until the end of the match.